Tumor Markers - CA153/proGRP/CA242/PGI/PGII/Cy211
A tumor marker (TM) is a substance secreted or discharged by cancer cells into body fluids or tissues, or a substance that is produced by a host in response to the presence of new organisms in the body that has entered body fluids or tissues. For clinical application, TMs refer to the relevant detectable substances in serum or other body fluids. Some TMs are absent from the normal human body, but present in embryos. Others are present at elevated levels in cancer patients as compared with those in the normal human body. Determination of the presence or level of TMs can aid the diagnosis of tumors and the analysis of the course of disease, provide guidance for treatment, and monitor recurrence or metastasis, as w ell as the determination of prognosis.
The cancer antigen CA153 is an epitope of a large transmembrane glycoprotein that produced by the MUC1 gene. This glycoprotein has a high molecular weight ranging from 300 to 400 KD and its epitope is composed of sugar and peptide. C A153 is a tumor-associated antigen in breast cancer cells. When its MUC1 mucin is aberrantly glycosylated, overexpressed, and released into the blood circulation, patients with breast cancer will exhibit a high level in CA153 antigen. CA153 is one of the key indicators for breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis as well as being widely used in tumor disease detection such as ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, and cervical cancer.