PROSTATE HYPERPLASIA & URINARY FUNCTION
The prostate is a walnut-sized gland that is part of
the male reproductive system. Its major function
is to contribute seminal fluid. Located inside the
body cavity, the prostate sits in front of the rectum
and just below the bladder. The prostate gland
surrounds the urethra, the canal through which
urine exits the body. Prostate gland enlargement
can be caused by prostate cancer, but 80% of the
time it is attributable to benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Over the years, the prostate grows bigger, a
natural evolution linked to aging. This can lead
to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which usually
occurs around the age of 40-45 .
Pathological BPH is characterized by an increased
number of stromal and epithelial cells. Because
the prostate surrounds the urethra, the resulting
prostate enlargement can obstruct the flow of the
urine, making urination difficult.
SYMPTOMS OF BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA
The severity of symptoms in people who have
prostate gland enlargement varies, but symptoms
tend to gradually worsen over time. Common signs
and symptoms of BPH include:
(i) a frequent urge to urinate, especially during the
night; (ii) intermittency; (iii) difficulty starting and
maintaining a steady stream of urine; (iv) dribbling
of urine after urination; and (v) inability to fully empty
the bladder .
This variety of symptoms is now called lower urinary
tract symptoms (LUTS), instead of BPH.
However, symptoms can improve without
treatment, but it usually show a slow progression of
symptoms, with acute urinary retention occurring in
1% to 2% of men whit BPH a year .
The size of your prostate is not necessarily in
correlation with symptoms severity. Some men with
only slightly enlarged prostates can have significant
symptoms, while other men with very enlarged
prostates can have only minor urinary symptoms.
The diagnostic process requires several steps:
prostate-specific antigen analysis, rectal ultrasound,
a urine flow study, and a cystoscopy.
CAUSES OF BENIGN PROSTATIC
The cause of BPH is still unknow, but it may be due
in part to hormonal changes within the prostate itself.
Prostate cell growth can be stimulated by
accumulation in the prostate of dihydrotestosterone
(DHT), an active form of testosterone that can be
regulated with certain nutrients and drugs. It can
also be stimulated by accumulation of estrogen
in the prostate, other growth factors, or complex
interactions between cell layers of the prostate. In
addition, genetic factors likely play a role—having
a family member with benign prostatic hyperplasia
increases the likelihood that you will develop it as
HYPERPLASIA: UNIQUE SYNERGY OF 6
PLANT EXTRACTS PROMOTING GOOD
Treatment options for symptomatic BPH include
lifestyle change, medical, device or surgical therapy.
A pharmacological approach is to use Alpha1
-receptor antagonists, such as doxazosin, prazosin,
terazosin, tamsulosin, and alfuzosin that improve
lower urinary tract symptoms by promoting smooth
All these drugs improve the dynamic component
of urination (activation of bladder smooth muscles)
and relieve the symptoms of BPH in about 70% of
men. However, some
side effects may occur: dizziness, hypotension
or syncope. However, adverse effect varies by
Other drugs are largely used. It is about inhibitors
of enzyme 5-α-reductase (dutasteride and
finasteride). However, Finasteride can cause several
unpleasant side effects, including impotence,
erectile dysfunction, reduced libido, and ejaculation
That’s why the phytotherapy, i.e. the use of plant
extracts, is becoming widely used to manage BPH
Nutritional composition 4 tablets
Pumpkin seeds 1000 mg
Saw Palmetto 300 mg
Nettle 250 mg
African Plum 100 mg
Tomato of which 75 mg
Lycopene 15 mg
Liposoluble Pollen 60 mg
These 6 plant extracts found in HYPERPLASIA have
been the subject of clinical studies which have
demonstrated their efficacy in prostate hyperplasia.
HYPERPLASIA: MODES OF ACTION OF THE
Patented fat-soluble pollen extract
Numerous trials have been conducted to evaluate
the efficacy of pollen extract (Cernitin®). The findings
confirm its beneficial effects in the management of
benign prostatic hyperplasia.
• In a 4-month study, 89 men with benign prostatic
hyperplasia were treated with either the pollen
extract (Cernitin®), Tadenan® (a European drug
with Pygeum extract) or a placebo. In the
group under pollen extract (Cernitin®), 78% of
men reported an improvement in symptoms,
especially obstructive and irritative symptoms.
They also reported a significant improvement in
urinary output and urinary frequency
• The benefits of Cernitin® were also demonstrated
in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study with
60 men with obstructed urine flow due to benign
prostatic hyperplasia (Buck et al, 1990). They
were treated with a pollen extract (Cernitin®) (2
capsules, 2x daily) or placebo for 6 months. The
pollen extract (Cernitin®) group had a significant
overall improvement in symptoms compared to
the placebo group.
• Nycturia (frequent need to urinate at night)
has been improved or completely eliminated
in 60% of patients treated with the pollen
extract (Cernitin®) compared to 30% of
patients treated with placebo.
• In addition, 57% of patients in the pollen extract
(Cernitin®) group showed an improvement in
bladder emptying, compared to only 10% in
the placebo group.
• Residual urinary volume was also significantly
reduced in patients receiving the pollen
extract (Cernitin®) compared to those
• Patients treated with the pollen extract
(Cernitin®) also have a significant decrease in
Although its exact mode of action is unknown,
studies have suggested a number of mechanisms
by which Fat-liposoluble pollen may help manage
benign prostatic hyperplasia.
• Fat-soluble pollen extract can inhibit
prostaglandins to reduce prostate inflammation,
relax smooth urethra muscles and inhibit the
proliferation of prostate cells (Oliff et al, 2004).
• Fat-soluble pollen could inhibit the enzyme
5-alpha-reductase in prostate gland tissue.
In benign prostatic hyperplasia, the enzyme
5-alpha-reductase often converts testosterone
to excess DHT, thus causing DHT to accumulate.
DHT stimulates growth of the prostate and has
a role in the development of benign prostatic
Hyperplasia contains the fat-soluble pollen part for
better assimilation. Pollens are derived from specific
plants: Secale cereale L. (rye), Phleum pratense L.
(Timothy), Zea mays L. (Corn).
In addition, the walls of pollen grains have been
removed by a patented method. During these technical
phases, the outer walls of pollens containing the
majority of allergens are removed. Only the cytoplasm,
rich in nutrients, is recovered. This is a special process
that only holds all the beneficial nutrients present in
the cytoplasm and to remove allergenic components
present on the grain surface .
Saw palmetto, a dwarf palm tree native from
southeastern North America, contain fatty acids and
their glycerides (oleic, caprilic, myristic, etc.), sterols
(e.g., β–Sitosterol, campesterol, and cycloartenol), and
sitosterol derivates. Other constituents are organic
acid, polysaccharides, flavonoids, volatile oil, and
so on. It is commonly used to
manage the symptoms of prostate hyperplasia. Two
Italian studies carried out on patients with BPH have
shown that saw palmetto (320 mg/day for 30 days)
was effective in terms of both reduction micturition’s
frequency and prostatic size.
Boyle et al. (2004) reported also positive effects of
Permixon®, a lipido-sterolic extract of saw palmetto, in
improving peak urine flow rate and reducing nocturia
compared with placebo.
Saw palmetto has a number mechanisms of action
that may be beneficial in treating BPH. It has an antiinflammation
role in BPH, probably by intervening
in the balance between apoptosis and proliferation. In addition, sterols and fatty acids
are thought to inhibit enzyme 5-α-reductase blocking
the conversion of testosterone to DHT, a major growth
stimulator of the prostate gland. Animal studies
demonstrate that saw palmetto induces apoptosis
(programmed cell death), inhibits cell proliferation,
and prohibits the action of estrogen in the prostate.
Saw palmetto is well tolerated, though gastrointestinal
disturbance has been reported in rare cases.
Pygeum africanum is a tree from northern Africa. Its bark
extracts have been used throughout Europe for more
than 30 years to improve genital-urinary symptoms.
Several comparative and placebo-controlled clinical
studies show the efficacy of Pygeum africanum for
BPH symptoms and lower urinary tract problem. Many
mechanisms of action have been proposed, including
the inhibition of prostatic fibroblast proliferation in
response to growth factors, antiinflammatory activity
and inhibition of 5-α-reductase. Pygeum seems to have a
positive effect not only on the prostate but also on the
bladder by protecting it against destructive effects of
free radicals and degradative enzymes.
In a meta-analysis of 18 randomized controlled trials
involving 1562 men, Pygeum provided an improvement
in urologic symptoms and flow measures (nocturia
was reduced by 19%, whereas peak urine flow was
increased by 23%).
Lycopene is a member of the carotenoid family of
Lycopene accumulates in certain organs, particularly
in the liver and prostate. The study
by Biesalski et al., indicates that lycopene at a dose of
15 mg/d for 6 months can inhibit disease progression
and reduce symptoms in patients with BPH.
The mechanism of action of lycopene in BPH is
still unknown, but there are several hypotheses.
Lycopene has the highest antioxidant activity of all the
carotenoids. Therefore, lycopene’s antioxidant activity
is a possibility. Lycopene
has also been found to inhibit cell growth in normal
prostatic epithelial cells
and to promote apoptosis in hyperplastic prostate
The seeds of Cucurbita pepo L. contain phytosterols
(Δ7-sterols and Δ5-sterols) that protect the prostate
gland and promote healthy urinary tract functions.
The Δ7-sterols are considered to be active constituents
and they have been shown to significantly decrease
elevated levels of DHT in patients with BPH. Pumpkin
also produces a tonic effect on the bladder and
relaxation of the bladder’s neck sphincter .
In a randomised, double-blind study, the preparation
Curbicin, obtained from pumpkin seeds and dwarf
palm plants (Cucurbita pepo L. and Sabal serrulata),
was compared with a placebo in the treatment
of symptoms caused by prostatic hyperplasia; 53
patients took part in the study, which was carried
out over a 3-month period. Urinary flow, micturition
time, residual urine, frequency of micturition and a
subjective assessment of the effect of treatment were
all significantly improved in the treatment group. No
unwanted side effects were noted
Nettle root extract (Urtica dioica) contributes to healthy
prostate function and normal urinary tract function.
Squash seeds contain phytosterols that protect the
prostate gland and thus promote healthy urinary tract
functions via its anti-inflammatory activity and its slight
inhibitory effect on 5-α-reductase.
A 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled,
randomized, partial crossover, comparative trial
of Urtica dioica with placebo in 620 patients was
conducted. This study showed that Urtica dioica have
beneficial effects in the treatment of symptomatic
BPH (Safarinejad et al, 2005). In addition, a study of
134 patients (aged 53 to 84 years) showed that taking
African plums in synergy with nettle extract reduced
urinary output, residual urine and nocturia after 28
SUMMARY OF THE PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF « HYPERPLASIA » ON BPH
HYPERPLASIA helps men with benign prostatic hyperplasia.
HYPERPLASIA, as a food supplement, improves :
• urinary flow
• painful urination
• residual urine and inflammation