MALE FERTILTY IN DECLINE
Approximately 15% of couples attempting their first
pregnancy meet a failure. Most authorities define
these patients as primarily infertile if they have been
unable to achieve a pregnancy after one year of
unprotected intercourse. Conception normally is
achieved within twelve months in 80-85% of couples
who use no contraceptive measures, and persons
presenting after this time should therefore be regarded
as possibly infertile and should be evaluated. Data
available over the past twenty years reveal that in
approximately 30% of cases pathology is found in
the man alone, and in another 20% both the man and
woman are showing reduced fertility. Therefore, the
male factor is at least partly responsible in about 50%
of infertile couples.
ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS OF MALEINFERTILITY
Male infertility may be various in origin. First of all we
make a difference between infertility and reduced
fertility. Infertility can be classified as follows:
Pre-testicular factors of endocrine origin due
to hypothalamic and pituitary disorders. The
problems of hypogonadism or the consequence
of problems connected with intercourse can
be given as examples (anomalies of the penis,
difficulties with erection, ejaculation, etc.).
Testicular factors of genetic origin (deletion
on the Y chromosome), of congenital origin
(cryptorchidism), of infectious origin (viral
orchitis) or even due to the action of toxic
agents (chemical, physical or biological) which
adversely affect the physiological control
process and affect normal gonad function.
Post-testicular factors due either to unilateral or
bilateral congenital or acquired obstruction of
the genital tract, with variable consequences for
fertility, or to an acute or chronic infection such
as urethritis, or to an immunological cause.
In such cases remedies for infertility may be note easy
or even being impossible to cure.
• MALE FERTILITY
• SPERMATOZOA SYNTHESIS
• Maintenance of testosterone levels
Reduced fertility on the other hand has different
causes and will mostly reflect in decreased mobility of
spermatozoids, malformations, reduced sperm count
and other factors causing decrease of semen quality.
Such factors may be:
Contact with toxic agents which may be gonadotoxic
or antispermatogenic. There exist a lot of such
substances with which we daily may have contact,
professional or in our all-day life. These substances
affect a significant proportion of the population.
Organochlorines (DDT, PCB, dioxin), used as
pesticides in agriculture or even while gardening.
These substances have oestrogenic effects in
man and block the androgen receptors. They
also induce changes in the quality of the sperm
and in the size of the testicles.
Heavy metals used in the industry but also
present in many products like batteries, paint,
Tobacco and smoking causes a harmful effect on the
number, mobility and morphology of the spermatozoa
by adversely affecting spermatogenesis. Furthermore,
cigarette smoke is the source of the creation of
activated oxygenated substances (free radicals)
which are also harmful to spermatozoa. Currently
there is also an increase in the consumption of socalled
recreational drugs (marijuana, cocaine).
Chronic alcohol consumption causes a reduction in
the count and number of normal spermatozoa. In the
case of alcoholism, sexual function is also adversely
NORMAL AND ABNORMAL MORPHOLOGY - FORMS
Pharmacological agents affect fertility according to
the dose used and the period over which they are
Antimicrobials (tetracyclines and neomycins)
disrupt the proper functioning of the
spermatozoa and spermatogenesis.
The antineoplastics used in chemotherapy
and the X and Y rays used in radiotherapy
block spermatogenesis and cause structural
anomalies in the spermatozoa.
Cyclosporine, used as an immunosuppressant
after transplantation, has a hypoandrogenic
Hormones. Our meat is normally hormonefree,
although some practices still may occur.
Hormones are stored in the adipose tissue of
meat and in this way they can enter our body
after consumption. Unfortunately there is still an
abuse in the world of sport where hormones still
are used as doping products.
Physical gonadotoxic events may affect us to a
greater extent as they involve a large proportion of
the male sex (for example: an increase in temperature
in the scrotum). This may due to wearing tight clothes
(jeans for instance) but also remaining seated for
many hours (office work, bus, truck andtaxi drivers,
long airplane flights etc.).
In order to determine the biological criteria which
define a man’s fertility status, the WHO (World Health
Organisation) has drawn up standards for analysing
WHO CLASSIFICATION OF “NORMAL” SEMEN PARAMETERS:
Volume of sperm per ejaculation 2 ml
Concentration of spermatozoa 20 millions / ml
Mobility of spermatozoa 50%
Speed of progression of spermatozoa (on a scale of 0 to 4) 3
% of spermatozoa with normal morphology (WHO value) 30%
Total number of spermatozoa 40 millions
Total number of mobile spermatozo 20 millions
Total number of functional spermatozoa 6 millions
Only the results of a spermogram can reveal
whether there is hypofertility, normal fertility or even
In cases of hypofertility confirmed by the spermogram,
several nutrients have proved to be useful for
improving the deficient parameters.
GOOD NUTRIENTS USEFUL FOR FERTILITY AT RISK!
FERTILHOM offers a unique combination of these useful nutrients
Nutrient composition Daily (for 1 sachet)
L-carnitine fumarate 2,9 g
Acetyl-L-carnitine 500 mg
L-arginine 250 mg
Glutathione 100 mg
Coenzyme Q10 40 mg
Zinc 7,5 mg
Vitamin B9 234 μg
Selenium 50 μg
Vitamin B12 2 μg
Fertilhom composition provides useful nutrients in order to increase male fertility : L-carnitine fumarate, acetyl-
L-carnitine, L-arginine, Glutathione, Coenzyme Q10, Zinc, Vitamin B9, Selenium, Vitamin B12.
MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF THE ACTIVE INGREDIENTS
L-carnitine fumarate and acetyl-L-carnitine are
the main ingredients of FertilHom. Chemically,
carnitine is related to the amino acids but is not a
constituent of proteins. It serves as a transporter
of fatty acids to their oxidation site so that these
undergo mitochondrial 3-oxidation and thus provide
the energy necessary for spermatozoid mobility.
Correlations are seen in hypofertile men between the
concentration of carnitine and mobility and sperm
count. A supplementation of 3 g of L-Carnitin per
day for 3 to 4 months to men suffering from idiopathic
asthenospermia has made it possible to increase the
number of mobile spermatozoa by 10% and bring
about an 8% increase in spermatozoa with rapid linear
Arginine is a non-essential amino acid but which is
necessary for the production of high-quality sperm.
The physiological production of arginine reduces
with age and a supplement of arginine has proved to
be effective in older men. Studies show that taking
supplements for several months increases the quality
and quantity of the spermatozoa8,9 and therefore
Glutathione acts as an antioxidant. The glutathione
enzymes peroxidase and reductase play crucial
roles in combatting oxidative stress damaging the
quality of the sperm. Any reduction in the levels of
glutathione (GSH) during spermatogenesis is clearly
linked to defects in the integrity of the membrane of
Coenzyme Q10 is another liposoluble antioxidant,
useful for spermatozoa morphology. Its endogenous
synthesis requires the presence of vitamins C, B2, B5,
B6 and B12 but it reduces gradually with age after 25
years of age. Ubiquinone is extremely concentrated
in the mitochondria of the intermediate part of the
spermatozoa where it has a dual function: as a powerful
antioxidant AND as an intermediary of the respiratory
chain. Coenzyme Q10 is therefore essential for the
production of energy in the spermatozoa. It performs
vital functions for the spermatozoa. Indeed their great
an enormous energy requirement. Coenzyme Q10
helps to increase the number and mobility of the
Zinc is a really essential element to the reproductive
function of men. In the area of fertility, it is indispensable
for testicular development, spermatogenesis, the
mobility of the spermatozoa and 5‑α-reductase activity
(the enzyme necessary for converting testosterone
into 5‑α-dihydrotestosterone, a biologically active
form of testosterone). A zinc deficiency as a cause of
oligospermia, impotence and hypogonadism has long
been known about in rodents and in man5.
Apart from its well-studied function as an antioxidant,
selenium plays a role in the biosynthesis of
testosterone and in the formation and development
of the spermatozoa. A group of researchers has
moreover identified a keratinoid selenium protein
called GPX4: this structural protein is associated with
the mitochondrial capsule of the spermatozoa. It makes
up 50% of this capsule and thus provides the integrity
required by the flagellum to ensure its mobility and
stability. Unlike the other glutathione peroxidases,
GPX4 does not have any direct antioxidant action at
this level. Other glutathione peroxidases take care of
this. It plays a role in the structure formation and thus
does not act as a catalyser of reaction.
Several studies have reported that in men with fertility
problems, their vitamin B9 and B12 statuses were
Indeed, any vitamin B12 deficiency is correlated
with a loss of mobility and a reduced number of
spermatozoa. Also, when folic acid (vitamin B9) is
administered together with zinc to hypofertile men,
their sperm quality is significantly better compared with
administration of either vitamin B9 or zinc alone.
1 stick per day to be dissolved in
a glass of water before dinner.
Store in a dry place, away from
20 - 60 sticks.